Education is the guidance or leadership by educators aware of the physical and spiritual development of students toward the main personality formation (Marimba, 1989: 19). In humanistic philosophical perspective, education is meant as the efforts to humanize humans (Ahmad Tafsir, 2006: 33). Through education, individuals (their physical and psychological functions) can be grown up and developed to become the main and integral personality. Harmony between the physical and psychological maturity refers to the meaning of ideal education. In accordance with Islamic educational perspective as said by Al-Syaibany (1979: 131), education desires the establishment of physical and psychological suitability as signed in the word of God: "And look at what God has given to you (happiness) in the Hereafter, and do not forget your happiness from ( easement) worldly ... "(Sunarjo, 1989: 623). Thus, the role of education is important for the growth and the development of individuals’ psychological and physical aspects so that they become a balanced individual toward a positive direction.
The most important element in education is curriculum, because it is of the order of a deliberately designed for the purposes of education. The word “education” does not mean anything without curriculum. When we mention education, indeed we mention the fact of the curriculum. Because of the importance of a such curriculum role and function, the effort to make curriculum development is a creative, innovative and dynamic step to progress in accordance with the demand growth and progress of human civilization itself. This paper will attempt to explain the approach and the curriculum development models from the theoretical perspective. May this paper can provide insight overview on the development of curriculum for the postgraduate students.
1. Views of Curriculum
The most traditional image of curriculum stems back to antiquity and the seven liberal arts, usually divided into the trivium (grammar, rhetoric, and dialectic) and the quadrivium (arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music). Curriculum is equated with the subjects to be taught (Schubert, 1986: 26). Here, curriculum is perceived as content or subject matter. Educators who use this image intend to explicate clearly the network of subjects taught, interpretations given to those subjects, prerequisite knowledge for studying certain subjects, and rationale for the ways in which all subjects at a particular level of school fit together and provide what is needed at that level. Criticism on this view is that the exclusive focus on subjects does not account for other planned or unplanned activities that are major part of students’ experiences in schools. In fact, it only accounts for topics to be covered and neglects such important dimensions as cognitive development, creative expression, and personal growth. There is much more involved in planning than the subject to be taught. Instructional strategies, sequencing procedures, the scope of the subject, motivational devices, evaluation instruments, and interpretations of content are but a sample of planned attributes.
Another view is that curriculum as a program of planned activities. This image of curriculum incorporates scope and sequences, interpretation and balance of subject matter, motivational devices, teaching techniques, and anything else that can be planned in advance (Lewis, 1981). The nature of a plan can be quite wide ranging. Here, Beaucham (1981) views curriculum as a written documents, and the other accepting plans that are in the minds of educators but remain unwritten. Taylor (1970) has carefully observed teacher planning of courses and has emphasized that while it may involve written notes, much teaching is based on a curriculum of unwritten plans. Criticism to this is that to characterize curriculum as planned activities is to place major emphasis on outward appearance rather than inner development. It values outcomes and neglects the learning process.
Curriculum is also meant as cultural reproduction (Schubert, 1986: 29). The job of schooling is to reproduce salient knowledge and values for the succeeding generation. The community, state, or nation takes the lead in identifying the skills, knowledge, and appreciations to be taught. Criticism to this view is that to hold that curriculum should be uncritical cultural reproduction assumes that the status quo is good enough (i.e. that cultural and social improvements are not needed). These are as argued by Apple (1979), Anyon (1980), Giroux (1983), and others.
Beside those views, it is understandable that curriculum is as experience (Dewey in Schubert, 1986: 30). This position holds that educational means and ends are inseparable parts of a single process: experience. The teacher is a facilitator of personal growth, and the curriculum is the pocess of experiencing the sense of meaning and direction that ensues from teacher and student dialogue. Criticism to the view is that while curriculum as personal experience and growth sounds wonderful I principle, it is impossible in practice. For the same reason, this conception of curriculum is so broad that it defies research.
The varieties of the views of curriculum above are not needed to be pointed out. The most important thing in education is that curriculum must be constructed and applied in the educational activities. So the things needed to concern is how to design, construct and implement curriculum effectively to reach the goals of education. One of the ways to be able in designing, constructing curriculum is understanding models of curriculum development.
2. Approaches in Curriculum Development
There are two approaches that can be applied in developing the curriculum, namely the top-down approach or administrative model, and the grassroots approach.
a. Top-Down Approach
It is called top-down approach with the reason of that , the curriculum development initiatives appeared from education officials and the administrators or the holders of the education policy such as the General Director or Head of Education Department. Then by using the command line, curriculum development goes to the bottom. This approach is also called line staff model. Curriculum development model procedure is conducted as follows.
Curriculum Development Procedure
Adapted from: Tim Pengkur & Learning UPI, 2002: 30.
b. Grassroots approach
In accordance with its term name, the approach to curriculum development of this model begins fidgetiness teachers about the curriculum in effect, the next update, or they have a desire to improve it. The task of the administrators in the development of this model is no longer act as a control pegembangan but only as a motivator, and facilitator. Curriculum change or improvement can be initiated by individual teachers or groups of teachers, for example, joined in MGMP between schools and madrasah (Teams for curriculum development & Learning of UPI, 2002: 30). Countries that follow decentralized education system usually more likely use the grassroots model, because education policy is not governed from the center, but the education is determined by the region and even by school. Development of this model is only possible if the teachers at the school have the ability and the attitude of high professional, who understand the specifics of education, if not the very small possibility of a change can occur.
3. Curriculum Development Models
Model of curriculum development is the process to make decisions and to revise the program curriculum. There are at least 4 curriculum development models that have been recognized and often used; the Tyler model, Taba Taba, Oliva model, and Beaucham model. The model names are based on the names of curriculum developers.
a. Tylor’s Curriculum Development Model
This development curriculum model means more of how to design a curriculum in accordance with the goals and the mission of an educational institution. According to Taylor (1990) there are four fundamental things that are considered to develop a curriculum, which is the purpose of education who want to be achieved, learning experience to achieve the goals, learning organizing experiences, and evaluation.
1) Define Objectives
The purpose of formulating the curriculum, is depending on the theory and philosophy of education and what the curriculum model adopted. Curriculum developer for the academic subject, the control of various concepts and theories in the discipline is the main source. Curriculum such as this is called the curriculum "discipline oriented."
Unlike the model of humanistic curriculum developers who are more "child oriented" or "student oriented". This curriculum emphasizes the development of more private children / students. Therefore the main source which is made to be goals, of course is the students themselves, both related to the development of talents and interests and provide for the needs of his life.
It is also unlike the curriculum of social reconstruction, it is more "society centered." This model positioned the school curriculum as a tool for improving community life. Therefore, the needs and problems of the social-issue is the source of the main curriculum. Tyler (1990) holds that there are three forms of resources that can be used to formulate the purpose of education, ie individuals (children as students), contemporary life, and expert consideration of field of study.
2) Defining learning experience.
Tyler (1990: 41) argues that the term "learning experience" is not the same as the content with a course which deals nor activities performed by the teacher. The term "learning experience" refers to the interaction between the learner and the external conditions in the environment to which he can react. Learning takes place through the active behavior of the student; it is what he does that he learns not what the teacher does. So, the learning experience of students refers to activities in the learning process. What should be asked in this experience is "what will be done and have been done by the students" not "what will be done and have been done by teachers."
There are several principles in determining student learning experiences, which are: (a) students experience must be appropriate to the goals you want to achieve, (b) each learning experience must satisfy the students, (c) each design of student learning experience should involve students, and (d) in one learning experience, students can reach a different objectives.
3) Organize learning experience
Tyler holds (1990) that there are two types of organizing learning experiences, which is organizing it vertically and horizontally. Organizing vertically, when the learning experience in a similar study in a different level. For example, organizing learning experiences that connect the religious studies of class five with religious studies of class six class. While organizing horizontally, if connecting the experience religious studie and civic education in the same class.
There are three criteria, according to Tyler (1950: 55) in organizing learning experiences, which are: continuity, sequence, and integration. The principle of continuity means that the learning experience given should have continuity and it is needed to learning experience in advance.
Principles of content sequence means that the learning experience provided to students should pay attention to the level of students development. Learning experience given in class five should be different with learning experiences in the next class.
The principle of integration means that the learning experience provided to students must have a function and useful to obtain learning experience in other sectors. For example, learning experience in Arabic language must be able to get help learning experience in the field of another studies.
There are two aspects that need to be concerned with evaluation, namely: the evaluation should assess whether there have been changes in student behavior in accordance with the goals of education which have been formulated, and evaluation ideally use more than one assessment tool in a certain time.
There are two functions of evaluation. First, the evaluation used to obtain data on the educational goals achievement by the students (called the summative function). Second, the evaluation used to measure the effectiveness of the learning process (called the formative function).
b. Taba’s Curriculum Development Model
Taba more focused on a model of how to develop the curriculum as a process improvement and curriculum improvement. There are five steps in curriculum development of Taba’s model (Taba, 1962), namely:
1) Generate Experiment Units (Pilot Unit).
The steps undertaken in this phase are:
(a) diagnose needs; in this step, curriculum developers start with determining the needs of students through a diagnosis of "gaps", lack of variety (deficiencies), and differences in student background;
(b) formulate goals. After the needs of students were diagnosed, then a curriculum developer formulates goals.
(c) Selecting content. Elections of contents are in accordance with the objectives of the curriculum. Elections are not only content based on the goals that must be achieved, but must also consider the terms of validity and meaningfulness for students.
(d) Organizing the content. Through the selection of content, the content of the curriculum that was determined, further that is ordered and arranged, so visible on the class level or how the curriculum should be.
(e) Selecting a learning experience. At this stage, the learning experience that should be owned by students to achieve curriculum goals.
(f) Organizing learning experience. Further, determining how teachers become learning experiences that have been specified in the packages of that, and invited the students, so they have a responsibility in implementing the learning activities.
(g) Determine the evaluation tools and procedures that must be followed by students. In the determination of this evaluation tool, teachers can select a variety of techniques that can be done to assess student achievement, whether students are able to achieve a goal or not.
(h) The balance of the content of the curriculum. This needs to be done to see the suitability of the content, learning experiences and types of student learning.
2) Conducting Experiment
At this step, the teacher tries to test the experimental unit to obtain data in order to find the validity and feasibility of its use.
3) Revising and consolidating
At this stage, teachers revise and consolidate the units based on the experimental data obtained in the pilot.
4) Developing a curriculum framework
At this stage, teachers develop the overall curriculum framework.
5) Implementation and Desimasi
At this stage, the teacher implements and desiminates tested curriculum. Here, teachers need to be prepared through upgrading, and workshops and prepare the facilities and equipment in accordance with the curriculum demands.
c. Oliva’s Curriculum Development Model
According to Oliva (1988), a curriculum model should be simple, comprehensive and systematic. Oliva describes the curriculum development model in the 12 components in which one another inter-related. The components are as follows.
1) General students and community Needs
2) Special students needs, the community needs, needs of discipline.
3) The purpose of general curriculum.
4) Specific goal curriculum.
5) Specific curriculum organization
6) The broad objective of learning.
7) The specific purpose learning.
8) The selection of learning strategies.
9) Selection of preliminary technical evaluation and selection to techniques of final evaluation.
10) Implementation of the strategy.
11) Evaluation of learning.
12) Evaluating the curriculum.
The first component in the development of the curriculum is philosophical formulation, target. Vision and mission of the institution that all comes from analysis of student needs and analysis of community needs. The first component contains statements of a general and very ideal. Second component is the analysis of the needs of the community where the school was located, the needs of students and urgency of the disciplines that must be provided by the school. Second component is a goal that leads to more specific.
Third and fourth components contain the goal of general and specific curriculum goals that are based on the needs as listed in the component and the second one. While the fifth component is how to organize and implement the curriculum design.
The sixth and seventh components start curriculum in explaining the purpose of formulating general and specific learning goals. If the goal of learning have been formulated, the next set of possible strategies to achieve goals such as the components of the eighth. During the same can be done initial study of potential assessment strategies or techniques that will be used. Further development of the curriculum forward in the tenth compartment, namely the strategy of learning.
When the curriculum was implemented, the developer component of the curriculum back to the ninth menseleksi end of the evaluation techniques to improve the evaluation tools or techniques. Techniques such as the assessment that has been assigned to the ninth component of the preliminary selection of the evaluation, it can be added or revised after feedback from the execution or implementation of the curriculum.
Determination of assessment tools and techniques that, then the next component in the eleventh and twelfth conducted evaluation of learning and evaluation of the curriculum.
According to Oliva, which developed this model can be used in several dimensions. Particularly to improve the school curriculum in the areas of special mislanya improvement in the field of curriculum studies in schools, both in rank and in the curriculum planning process pembelajarannya.
d. Beaucham’s Curriculum Development Model
According Beaucham (1975), there are five steps in the process of curriculum development, namely:
1) Define the area or the arena that will make a change in the curriculum. Areas that can occur in only one school, one district, district or provincial level and may be a national level.
2) Decide the people who will be involved in the process of curriculum development. Beaucham suggested to involve the broadest of the leaders in the community. The people involved should consist of experts / curriculum specialists, education experts (including teachers, experienced), other professional in the field of education (librarian, laboratory assistant, educational consultants and others), and professionals in the field along with other the community leaders (politicians, industrialist, businessman, and others).
3) Define the procedures to be adopted, namely in terms of formulating common goals and special objectives; select the content and learning experience and evaluation set. The entire procedure can be further divided into five steps:
(a) Form a team of curriculum developers.
(b) Conduct an assessment of the ongoing curriculum.
(c) Conducting studies or preliminary observation on the determination of the new curriculum.
(d) Formulating alternative criteria and curriculum development.
(e) Prepare and write the desired curriculum.
4) Implementation of the curriculum.
At this stage needs to be cooked in a variety of things that can affect both directly and indirectly of the effectiveness of the curriculum such as the understanding of teachers about the curriculum, facilities or facilities that are available, school management and others.
5) Undertake evaluation of the curriculum:
(a) Evaluation of the implementation of the curriculum by teachers in schools.
(b) Evaluation of the design curriculum.
(c) Evaluate the success of the students.
(d) Curriculum evaluation system.
The exposure of the above can be concluded as follows:
1. Approach to developing curriculum that is used depends on the situation and needs, and more frequently used top-down approach from the grassroots.
2. The four curriculum development model can be used with the consideration of situations and conditions and that there needs.
3. Curriculum development should be done not only by policy but education is even more important is done by developers, namely the field operational level teachers so that education can be achieved the target with both.
4. The approach of curriculum development that is suitable with the system of decentralized education is grass-root approach.
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